South Coast Urology


The testicles, also known as testes, are two small oval-shaped organs located within the scrotum, which is the sac of skin beneath the penis.

They are a crucial part of the male reproductive system and are responsible for producing sperm and testosterone, the primary male sex hormone. The testicles are connected to the rest of the reproductive system through a network of ducts and blood vessels.

Common Testicular Conditions:

  • Overview: Testicular torsion occurs when the spermatic cord, which supplies blood to the testicle, becomes twisted, cutting off blood flow to the testicle.
  • Causes: The exact cause is often unknown, but it can be spontaneous or result from trauma or physical exertion.
  • Symptoms: Sudden and severe testicular pain, swelling, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting.
  • Treatment: Emergency surgical intervention to untwist the testicle and restore blood flow.
  • Overview: Testicular trauma refers to injuries to the testicles, usually caused by a direct blow or impact.
  • Causes: Sports injuries, accidents, physical trauma.
  • Symptoms: Testicular pain, swelling, bruising, difficulty walking or moving, nausea.
  • Treatment: Rest, pain management, applying cold packs, supportive care. Severe cases may require surgery.
  • Overview: Testicular cancer is the development of malignant cells in the testicles.
  • Causes: The exact cause is often unknown, but risk factors include undescended testicles, family history, and certain genetic conditions.
  • Symptoms: Painless testicular lump or swelling, testicular pain or discomfort, heaviness in the scrotum, changes in testicular size or shape.
  • Treatment: Surgical removal of the affected testicle (orchiectomy), radiation therapy, chemotherapy, surveillance.
  • Overview: Orchitis is inflammation of one or both testicles, usually caused by a bacterial or viral infection.
  • Causes: Bacterial or viral infection, such as mumps or sexually transmitted infections.
  • Symptoms: Testicular pain, swelling, tenderness, fever, malaise.
  • Treatment: Antibiotics for bacterial orchitis, antiviral medications for viral orchitis, pain management, rest, supportive care.
  • Overview: Varicocele is the enlargement of veins within the scrotum, similar to varicose veins.
  • Causes: Faulty valves in the spermatic veins, leading to blood pooling and vein enlargement.
  • Symptoms: Dull testicular pain, feeling of heaviness in the scrotum, visible or palpable enlarged veins.
  • Treatment: Supportive care, pain management, surgical intervention in severe cases.
  • Overview: Hydrocele is the accumulation of fluid within the scrotum, surrounding the testicle.
  • Causes: Fluid imbalance or irritation, trauma, infection.
  • Symptoms: Swelling of the scrotum, discomfort, pain or heaviness, feeling of fullness.
  • Treatment: Observation, surgical drainage or repair in persistent or symptomatic cases.

It is important to note that this list covers some of the common testicular conditions, but there are other less common conditions as well. Additionally, each individual case can vary, and treatment options depend on various factors. Consultation with a healthcare professional is essential for accurate diagnosis and personalised treatment. Regular testicular self-examinations and medical check-ups are important for testicular health.

All of our urologists have significant experience managing common testicular conditions and performing surgery for testicular disease. However, some of our specialists have longer waiting times than others due to their various sub-specialised areas of expertise in specific procedures, or their commitment to public practice. If you are unsure which specialists to see, or want to ensure the shortest waiting time, please contact us for a recommendation.

Our Urologists who specialise in Testicular conditions:

A/Prof Timothy Skyring



A/Prof Peter Chin



Dr Elizabeth Dally

BMed, MASurg, DCH, PGDipEpid, FRACS

Paediatric Urologist

Dr Paul Kovac



Dr Rahul Rindani



Dr Helen Nicholson

BSc(Adv), MBBS(Hons), FRACS


Dr Minh Tran



Dr Rasha Gendy



Our team of specialist urologists provide leading care to patients across the Illawarra region. Experience and training you can rely on.

At South Coast Urology, we offer comprehensive, clinically excellent, multidisciplinary urological care. We run clinics in Wollongong, Shellharbour and Nowra and operate at leading private hospitals across the Illawarra.