South Coast Urology


The bladder is a hollow, muscular organ located in the pelvis.

Its primary function is to store urine produced by the kidneys before it is eliminated from the body through the urethra. The bladder has a capacity to expand and contract as urine fills and is released. The control of bladder function involves a complex interplay of nerves, muscles, and signalling mechanisms.

Common Bladder Conditions:

  • Overview: UTIs occur when bacteria enter the urinary tract, leading to infection and inflammation.
  • Causes: Bacterial invasion through the urethra, commonly from the gastrointestinal tract.
  • Symptoms: Increased frequency of urination, urgency, burning sensation during urination, cloudy or strong-smelling urine, pelvic pain.
  • Treatment: Antibiotics to eliminate the bacterial infection, increased fluid intake, and urinary analgesics for symptom relief.
  • Overview: IC/BPS is a chronic condition characterised by bladder pain and urinary symptoms.
  • Causes: The exact cause is unknown but may involve inflammation, autoimmune factors, or bladder lining abnormalities.
  • Symptoms: Chronic pelvic pain, urinary frequency, urgency, bladder pressure or discomfort, pain during sexual intercourse.
  • Treatment: No definitive cure, but treatment may include bladder instillations (medications directly into the bladder), oral medications, physical therapy, nerve stimulation, dietary modifications, and pain management techniques.
  • Overview: OAB refers to a group of urinary symptoms caused by involuntary bladder contractions.
  • Causes: The exact cause is often unclear, but it can be related to nerve problems, muscle dysfunction, or underlying medical conditions.
  • Symptoms: Frequent urination, sudden and intense urges to urinate, urge incontinence, nocturia.
  • Treatment: Behavioural therapies (bladder training, pelvic floor exercises), medications (anticholinergics, beta-3 agonists), nerve stimulation, and in rare cases, surgical interventions.
  • Overview: Urinary incontinence is the inability to control urine flow, resulting in involuntary leakage.
  • Causes: Weakening of the pelvic floor muscles, nerve damage, hormonal changes, or underlying medical conditions.
  • Symptoms: Involuntary urine leakage, stress incontinence, urge incontinence, overflow incontinence.
  • Treatment: Behavioural techniques (pelvic floor exercises, bladder training), medications (anticholinergics, alpha-blockers), medical devices (pessaries), and in severe cases, surgery.
  • Overview: Bladder stones are hard mineral deposits that form in the bladder.
  • Causes: Concentrated urine, urinary tract infections, or underlying medical conditions.
  • Symptoms: Lower abdominal pain, blood in urine, frequent urination, difficulty urinating, cloudy or foul-smelling urine.
  • Treatment: Small stones may pass on their own, while larger stones may require interventions such as medications to dissolve them, lithotripsy, or surgical removal.
  • Overview: Bladder cancer is the abnormal growth of cells in the bladder lining.
  • Causes: Most cases are associated with exposure to carcinogenic substances, such as tobacco smoke or occupational chemicals.
  • Symptoms: Blood in urine, frequent urination, pain during urination, pelvic pain, back pain, weight loss.
  • Treatment: Treatment options depend on the stage and aggressiveness of the cancer and may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, or targeted therapy.

It is important to note that this overview provides a general understanding of common bladder conditions. However, each individual case can vary, and it’s crucial to consult with a healthcare professional for accurate diagnosis and personalised treatment options.

All of our urologists have significant experience managing common bladder conditions and performing surgery for bladder disease. However, some of our specialists have longer waiting times than others due to their various sub-specialised areas of expertise in specific procedures, or their commitment to public practice. If you are unsure which specialists to see, or want to ensure the shortest waiting time, please contact us for a recommendation.a

Our Urologists who specialise in Bladder conditions:

A/Prof Timothy Skyring



A/Prof Peter Chin



Dr Elizabeth Dally

BMed, MASurg, DCH, PGDipEpid, FRACS

Paediatric Urologist

Dr Paul Kovac



Dr Rahul Rindani



Dr Helen Nicholson

BSc(Adv), MBBS(Hons), FRACS


Dr Minh Tran



Dr Rasha Gendy



Our team of specialist urologists provide leading care to patients across the Illawarra region. Experience and training you can rely on.

At South Coast Urology, we offer comprehensive, clinically excellent, multidisciplinary urological care. We run clinics in Wollongong, Shellharbour and Nowra and operate at leading private hospitals across the Illawarra.