South Coast Urology


The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs located in the back of the abdomen.

They play a crucial role in filtering waste products from the blood, regulating fluid and electrolyte balance, and producing hormones that influence blood pressure and red blood cell production. The kidneys also help maintain acid-base balance in the body. Kidneys function as a vital part of the urinary system, producing urine that is eventually eliminated from the body.

Common Kidney Conditions:

  • Overview: CKD is a progressive and long-term condition in which the kidneys gradually lose their function.
  • Causes: Diabetes, high blood pressure, glomerulonephritis, polycystic kidney disease, urinary tract obstruction, autoimmune diseases, prolonged use of certain medications.
  • Symptoms: Fatigue, fluid retention, decreased urine output, swelling in the legs and ankles, shortness of breath, hypertension, changes in urine colour and frequency.
  • Treatment: Managing the underlying cause, controlling blood pressure and blood sugar levels, dietary modifications, medications, dialysis, kidney transplantation.
  • Overview: Kidney stones are hard mineral deposits that form in the kidneys and can cause severe pain when they pass through the urinary tract.
  • Causes: Concentrated urine, metabolic disorders, certain medications, urinary tract infections, dehydration, family history.
  • Symptoms: Severe pain in the back or side, blood in urine, frequent urination, urgency, cloudy or foul-smelling urine.
  • Treatment: Increased fluid intake, pain management, medication to promote stone passage, lithotripsy, ureteroscopy, surgical removal.
  • Overview: UTIs occur when bacteria enter the urinary tract, leading to infection and inflammation.
  • Causes: Bacterial invasion through the urethra, commonly from the gastrointestinal tract.
  • Symptoms: Increased frequency of urination, urgency, burning sensation during urination, cloudy or strong-smelling urine, pelvic pain.
  • Treatment: Antibiotics to eliminate the bacterial infection, increased fluid intake, urinary analgesics for symptom relief.
  • Overview: AKI is a sudden and rapid loss of kidney function.
  • Causes: Reduced blood flow to the kidneys, dehydration, medications, infections, urinary tract obstruction.
  • Symptoms: Decreased urine output, fluid retention, fatigue, nausea, confusion, shortness of breath, swelling in the legs and ankles.
  • Treatment: Treating the underlying cause, restoring fluid and electrolyte balance, medications, dialysis in severe cases.
  • Overview: PKD is an inherited condition characterised by the growth of numerous cysts in the kidneys.
  • Causes: Genetic mutation leading to the abnormal development of kidney tubules.
  • Symptoms: Abdominal pain, blood in urine, hypertension, frequent urinary tract infections, kidney stones, kidney failure.
  • Treatment: Symptomatic management, controlling blood pressure, treating complications, dialysis, kidney transplantation.
  • Overview: Glomerulonephritis refers to inflammation of the glomeruli, the filtering units in the kidneys.
  • Causes: Autoimmune diseases, infections, medications, systemic diseases.
  • Symptoms: Haematuria, proteinuria, hypertension, fluid retention, decreased urine output.
  • Treatment: Treating the underlying cause, medications to reduce inflammation, manage symptoms, and control blood pressure.
  • Overview: Kidney cancer is the development of malignant cells in the kidneys.
  • Causes: The exact cause is often unclear, but certain risk factors increase the likelihood, such as smoking, obesity, chemical exposure.
  • Symptoms: Blood in urine, flank pain, palpable mass in the abdomen, weight loss, fatigue, fever.
  • Treatment: Surgery, radiation therapy, targeted therapy, immunotherapy, chemotherapy.

It is important to note that this overview provides a general understanding of common kidney conditions. However, each individual case can vary, and it’s crucial to consult with a healthcare professional for accurate diagnosis and personalised treatment options. Regular check-ups and screenings are essential for maintaining kidney health.

All of our urologists have significant experience managing common kidney conditions and performing surgery for kidney disease. However, some of our specialists have longer waiting times than others due to their various sub-specialised areas of expertise in specific procedures, or their commitment to public practice. If you are unsure which specialists to see, or want to ensure the shortest waiting time, please contact us for a recommendation.

Our Urologists who specialise in Kidney Conditions:

A/Prof Peter Chin



Dr Elizabeth Dally

BMed, MASurg, DCH, PGDipEpid, FRACS

Paediatric Urologist

Dr Paul Kovac



Dr Rahul Rindani



Dr Helen Nicholson

BSc(Adv), MBBS(Hons), FRACS


Dr Minh Tran



Dr Rasha Gendy



Our team of specialist urologists provide leading care to patients across the Illawarra region. Experience and training you can rely on.

At South Coast Urology, we offer comprehensive, clinically excellent, multidisciplinary urological care. We run clinics in Wollongong, Shellharbour and Nowra and operate at leading private hospitals across the Illawarra.